On June 15, 1215, King John met the Barons at Runnymede on the Thames and set his seal to the Articles of the Barons, which after minor revision was formally issued as the Magna Carta. I have visited the field at Runnymeade where the Magna Carta was signed. Next year will be the 1100th anniversary of the signing of this document. For me, the Magna Carta is symbol of the sovereignty of the rule of law over the King. Its grant was of fundamental importance to the constitutional development of England and to the rest of the common law world such as the United States.
I thought about how King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta, clearly against his will, when I read an article in the May issue of the Harvard Business Review (HBR), entitled "How to Outsmart Activist Investors", by Bill George and Jay W. Lorsch. While the article focuses on steps a company can take before an activist shareholder buys into a company and demands changes, I thought the process of preparation that the authors listed as something that a Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) should consider in his or her company's compliance program.
The authors lay out the problem faced by company's as follows, "Their game is simple: They buy stocks they view as undervalued and pressure management to do things they believe will raise the value, such as giving more cash back to shareholders or shedding divisions that they think are driving down the stock price. With increasing frequency they get deeply involved in governance-demanding board seats, replacing CEOs, and advocating specific business strategies." They proposed a six-step process that allows a company to be ready for such an attack. However, I saw these six-steps as delineations a CCO could institute which would prepare a compliance program for a wide range of reviews, including audits, reviews by government regulators, queries by Board members or other high ranking company officials who may want to know more about a compliance program on a quick basis. So I have adapted the authors' six steps to advise the CCO on how to be ready for such an event or perhaps a myriad of others.
Have a Clear Strategic Focus and Stick to It
In their article, the authors pointed to PepsiCo's move to it's "Performance with Purpose, a strategy targeting three growth areas: (1) "good for you" products, including Quaker Oats and Gatorade; (2) product innovations; and (3) emerging markets. Part of the idea was to fund the substantial investments-including acquisitions-required to build these categories with the cash flow from PepsiCo's core business. PepsiCo did precisely that, acquiring a number of food and beverage companies in emerging economies such as Brazil, India, Russia, and Ukraine." For the compliance practitioner, I think it means you need to stick to your guns and move your program forward. It does not mean that you will not hit road bumps along the way but if you have something like Stephen Martin's suggestion for a 1 - 3 - 5 year program in writing and are following it, you can reject calls for major mid-course changes.
Analyze Your Business as an Activist Would
In their article, the authors said, "CEOs need to ensure that their boards understand the tactics of activist investors and have a game plan for responding. That means analyzing both how the activists might try to increase short-term shareholder value-through spin-offs and divestitures or financial engineering such as stock buybacks and increased debt-and the company's possible vulnerabilities in strategy and capital structure. Specific examples from other companies can help." For the compliance practitioner, I believe this means you need to keep abreast of the most current information available on the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) or other types of anti-corruption compliance. While the 2012 FCPA Guidance still provides some of the best articulation of what the Department of Justice (DOJ) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) believe constitute an effective compliance program, you should still monitor enforcement actions and other information. So if your company is in the tech space, the March HP enforcement action is something you should review to determine if any of HP's compliance failures might have implications for your company.
Have Your External Advisers Lined Up in Advance and Familiar with Your Company
The authors believe that to fight such proxy challenges "both management and the board must have external advisers whose guidance they can rely on." However, for the compliance practitioner, it means that you have taken steps to assess and verify the efficacy of your compliance program. Certainly you can benchmark your program against others in your industry but also having third parties assess, benchmark and verify your compliance program can be an excellent way to show where your program stands if someone comes looking at it.
Build Board Chemistry
Obviously when fighting an activist investor, Board cohesion is paramount. The authors note, "Activist investors are often out to divide a target company's board. To address the issues they raise in an objective and constructive manner, directors need the unity that comes from years of building board chemistry. That chemistry is enhanced through repeated engagement on important issues, weathering crises together, and candid dialogue with the CEO. The latter requires a high degree of transparency from the CEO and a willingness to share even the most sensitive information involved in decision making. To cope with an activist's challenges, directors must be fully committed to the company and its long-term objectives." But the same is true for a CCO. Having Board support is imperative to any long-term success for a compliance program. It is up to you to develop the relationships and provide timely information so that there are no surprises, or as few surprises as possible, in the area of compliance.
Perform in the Short Run Against Declared Goals
Just as "the best defense against an activist investor is consistent performance that realizes the company's stated goals; anything else makes the company vulnerable", I believe that a compliance program should also measure itself against stated goals. The FCPA Guidance makes clear that a compliance program begins with a risk assessment. The reason is not only to use the risk assessment to determine where your compliance program might stand but also to create a road map for future enhancements. It is also important to set realistic expectations. Overly ambitious compliance goals, which ultimately fall short can trip up a CCO and make a program vulnerable to criticisms.
Don't Dismiss Activist Ideas Out of Hand
The authors note "Most activist investors are smart, motivated people who often notice things that boards and managers overlook. It is generally worth listening to their recommendations and implementing the ones that make sense." For the CCO or compliance practitioner, I have long advocated listening to the business units to help see what works and what does not work. This does not mean a compliance program can only be followed when feasible, but it may require compliance program flexibility to allow it to not only measure and assess risk but to adequately manage compliance risk.
Doing What's Best for All Your Shareholders
The authors believe "One of a board's most important roles is to ensure that the company stays true to the mission and values that have made it successful. In recent years several activist fund managers with no industry experience have come to corporations with proposals for radical, unproven course changes. Sometimes major changes are needed, but companies that allow outside activists to implement them without full and careful consideration risk losing the commitment and engagement of their employees and customers." Similarly, a CCO or compliance professional needs "to work to ensure the long-term viability of the company's [compliance] mission and strategy."
Whether you are a lawyer or not, I believe that the Magna Carta is one of the most significant legal documents in the history of Anglo jurisprudence. Even if King John signed it at the point of a knife to his throat, or not, it became one of the foundation documents for English and, later, American law. But another lesson one may draw from it was that King John was not prepared when his Barons revolted against him. The HBR article provides a clear path for the compliance practitioner to follow to prepare for excess, outside, unwanted or other scrutiny.
&AA UNDER THE FCPA
If you are interested in learning about mergers and acquisitions under the FCPA I am involved in to upcoming events designed to give you the most up-to-date advice on this area of compliance. Both events are sponsored by The Network. The first event is a webinar entitled appropriately enough, "Mergers and Acquisitions Under the FCPA" and is scheduled for Tuesday, June 17th, 2014 TIME: 2:00 pm EDT. For registration and additional information click here. On Tuesday, June 24th the always popular Tom Fox/Stephen Martin roadshow travels to Denver where I will speak live on Merger and Acquisitions Under the FCPA and Stephen will talk about risk assessments under the FCPA. For information on the Denver event, click here.
WORLD CUP REVIEW
I am putting on a four part podcast series on the World Cup, detailing issues of bribery and corruption, together with an ongoing discussion of Team USA and this year's tournament. I am joined by Mike Brown, the Managing Director of Infortal. You can check out Part I by clicking here of the series where we discuss bribery of referees in the lead up to the 2010 World Cup held in South Africa and FIFA's response. Mike and I then review Team USA and it's draw in Group G-the Group of Death. I hope that you will check out this series and enjoy it as much as Mike and I enjoy recording the episodes. Also remember, my podcast, the FCPA Compliance and Ethics Report is available for download at no charge on iTunes so you can listen to Part I on your commute to work. So sign up for the podcast from WordPress or iTunes and enjoy our series.
This publication contains general information only and is based on the experiences and research of the author. The author is not, by means of this publication, rendering business, legal advice, or other professional advice or services. This publication is not a substitute for such legal advice or services, nor should it be used as a basis for any decision or action that may affect your business. Before making any decision or taking any action that may affect your business, you should consult a qualified legal advisor. The author, his affiliates, and related entities shall not be responsible for any loss sustained by any person or entity that relies on this publication. The Author gives his permission to link, post, distribute, or reference this article for any lawful purpose, provided attribution is made to the author. The author can be reached at [email protected]
© Thomas R. Fox, 2014